In a digital era where mobile and web applications are more complicated than before, it is difficult to envisage software design without automated testing. Complex applications mainly depend on a network of supporting subsystems, such as third-party interfaces, UI and API layers, external databases, etc. Meanwhile, malfunctions with any of these components could mean disaster for the entire program. As a result, each layer and its related subsystems must undergo a test using “end-to-end Testing” pros and cons techniques; to guarantee the optimum performance of the entire system.
In situations where the application tested has a large number of components and dependencies, e2e tests will be conducted with all parts attached; since it’s the most crucial testing process that addresses the most precise end-user scenarios. However, end-to-end testing makes it challenging to identify specific failures, takes a lot of time, and necessitates more hardware than integration and unit testing.
In this article, we will explain end-to-end testing, the pros, and cons of e2e tests, why we do e2e testing, components of end-to-end testing, and specific tools for e2e testing. Also, we will dwell on how it differs from regression & unit testing.
End-to-end testing, also known as e2e testing, is a testing approach that verifies a software lifecycle from beginning to end. The primary objective of e2e tests is to mimic an end user’s -application experience – to ensure that all interconnected dependencies, components, and other integrated parts function as intended.
In web applications, end-to-end tests actually automate the process of opening a browser and using the application as an end-user would. Clicking buttons, submitting forms, visiting different URLs; almost anything that a web user would do can be accomplished with browser automation and e2e testing.
In this domain, the entire program is examined for critical functionalities, including interacting with other systems, databases, interfaces, networks, and other applications.
End-to-end testing is a unique form of software testing that examines the whole piece of software from beginning to end and how it integrates with external interfaces. In contrast, unit testing involves testing each distinct software component independently.
During end-to-end testing, the tester examines the software program from the user’s viewpoint. In unit testing, the developer confirms the functionality of individual pieces of source code.
These two types of tests are vastly different from one another. Unit tests try to isolate the object or unit under test. This means they try to be as different as possible about testing a piece of code while minimizing interactions with other pieces of code.
E2E tests take a very different approach. E2e testing takes a behavior-driven development approach. Instead of testing individual pieces of code, they test the actual end experience that a user sees when using the application.
Generally, e2e tests deepen the test coverage to include various sub-systems while testing the entire system flow. Likewise, they can identify problems with subsystems and reduces the likelihood that a flaw in one of them may corrupt the whole system.
Unit tests and integration tests are not always comprehensive when it comes to testing a system as a whole. E2E tests by nature cover a system from end-to-end by loading a browser and automating user interactions, mimicking what a visitor would actually experience when using your website.
E2E testing examines the software’s layers, including its interfaces and final endpoints, from the front end to the back end. It ensures that the product undergoes user testing in live environments. Hence, it enables “risk avoidance” by;
End-to-end testing processes are performed when there is a systemic issue or when the outputs are not what was anticipated. The team must then document and examine all available data to pinpoint the cause of the problem.
In today’s programming world, whether or not to use e2e tests is decided on a case-by-case basis. While e2e tests are extremely attractive in theory, some of the downsides of e2e tests make them less desirable to certain software teams. In particular, e2e testing can be a painful pattern in large, monolithic software applications. This is because they are generally slower than other types of tests, and the pain felt from the slowness of e2e tests increases with the size of a codebase.
Writing an excellent e2e test starts with following the proven standards in the industry. E2E tests are often written in Gherkin syntax, which is useful for transferring business requirements into a codebase. Here is an example of the Gherkin syntax that many e2e tests use to explain the requirements of an e2e test:
Feature: Title of the ScenarioGiven [Preconditions or Initial Context]When [Event or Trigger]Then [Expected output]
In a test-driven development approach, often the e2e test is the first thing written for a new feature. Getting a red e2e test gives you a point of reference to always come back to as you continue developing your feature.
Here are some things to think about when utilizing e2e tests in your codebase:
First, build the user interfaces (functions) for the application. Meanwhile, the steps listed below will make this process simple;
Based on the user functions, build appropriate conditions by following the steps below;
Popular e2e testing tools in the industry include:
Any three of these options will commonly be found in an e2e automation testing suite.
End-to-end testing ensures that the entire software program is production-ready, section by section. Thus, some rationales as to why it benefits your enterprise ’s success are listed below;
Some of the drawbacks facing end-to-end testing include the following;
These disadvantages or cons to e2e testing should not be taken lightly. Slow execution can mean a slower time to integrate new features or bug fixes into your application, and slow build and release times, and these problems are greatly exacerbated as your application gets larger and larger.
Flaky tests are also typically a pain with e2e tests. It is not uncommon for e2e tests to pass in one environment and fail in another. Some common reasons why e2e tests might fail include:
Keep in mind these common reasons for e2e tests to fail is important when writing tests.
In this section, we will briefly proffer answers to some notable questions asked by e2e enthusiasts in this field. A few of them are:
E2E tests can be flaky for many different reasons. A flaky test is one that passes sometimes and fails others. This trait is unattractive because it can mean that failures in tests can be hard to replicate sometimes. This means that you start to question whether a feature is working or not. Some common reasons for e2e tests to be flaky are internet or computer speed, browser timeouts, request timeouts, timezones, etc.
User Acceptance Testing (UAT), also known as “application testing,” is the last phase of any change request lifecycle or software application development. It’s the final test phase of any development process to ascertain whether the “software program” performs as intended in actual settings.
E2E and UAT are similar because; testers usually replicate end-user behavior. However, e2e tests are performed by the quality assurance (QA) or technical testing team, while business users mainly carry out UAT.
QA and UAT perform different objectives. As such, UAT ensures that customers (users) receive the product they desire, while QA strives for error-free software.
Undoubtedly, speed is a significant menace when running advanced E2E tests, as it can take between 4 to 8 hours to complete an extensive suite of application tests. But, an ideal test shouldn’t last more than 2 hours.
In the software development industry, the three main types of testing are System testing, Integration testing, and Unit testing.
This refers to an e2e test performed using the selenium testing tool.
No, they aren’t the same. For instance, in e2e tests, test cases are usually created, whereas in regression testing -test cases already exist. Also, e2e testing detects issues linked with the integrations or subsystem, while regression testing ensures that -overall changes to the system don’t affect the functionality of existing code.
End-to-end testing is a software “testing” procedure that examines an application’s flow from beginning to end. This testing often imitates the actual user situations to verify the software and its dependencies for data integrity.